Monday, 3 February 2014

Life of Hazrat Muhammad (Sallal la ho Alaihi Wasalam)



Holy Prophet Ahmed–e-Mujtaba MUHAMMAD Mustafa (SAWS) belonged to a noble family
of Quraish and as a descendant of Hazrat Ibrahim (AS). Hazrat MUHAMMAD (SAWS) was
the direct descendant of Hazrat Ismail (AS). One of the descendant of Hazrat Ismail (AS)
was settled in Hijaz- Arabia. One of them was known as FIHR (Quraish) where as one
of his descendant became the custodian of the key of Ka’abah and known as QUSSAI.
The grandson of Qussai was named as Hashim (his family was known as Banu Hashim).
Grandfather of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) named Hazrat Abdul Muttalib belonged to Banu
Hashim. He had 7 sons. One of them was Hazrat Abdullah, the father of Prophet (SAWS).


The grandfather of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) named Hazrat Abdul Muttalib belonged to
Banu Hashim, having 7 sons was settled in Makkah as the custodian of the key of Ka’abah.
He was prominent for the following THREE reasons:
• Restoration of the fountain of ZamZam
• Courageous Dialogue with Abraha (Christian Viceroy of Yemen)
• Bringing up of his orphan grandson Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS)


Hazrat Abdullah was the father of Holy Prophet (SAWS) who married to Bibi Aminah (the
daughter of Wahab) but died before the birth of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) in 570 C.E.
and left a few Camels, Goats and a slave girl Umme Aiman in heritance.


Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) was born on 12 Rabi` al-Awwal 570 C.E. in Makkah His

father, `Abdullah Ibn `Abdul Muttalib of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe, died
before his birth.
His mother called him Ahmed and his grandfather
named him MUHAMMAD (SAWS) and clarified:
“ I have named him Muhammad so that
his name may be praised on the earth and in the heavens.”
Later (after 1422 years approx.) a book of a world renowned (a non-Muslim) writer of the
personalities ranked him the Best Personality of the World and acknowledged the claim of
His name is the compulsory part of Kalimah without which no one can enter in the circle
of Islam. His name is the part of Aaza’an (Call for Prayers). The importance of his name’s
blessings is also related with the incident of the reason of restoration of Heaven for
Hazrat Adam (AS)- the father of the human beings.
He was born as an orphan, therefore, had a very simple nature, honest and loving
personality. After the birth, he was given in the charge of Bibi Halima Saadia as a part
of custom. She handed over him to his mother and took him to the grave of his father. At
return his mother fell ill and died at Abwa when he was only of 6 years.
Hazrat Abdul Muttalib, his grandfather took over the charge of upbringing of Hazrat
Muhammad (SAWS) and opposed practically the tradition of orphan’s beggar use. But he
died when Holy Prophet (PBUH) was only 8 years old.
Then, Hazrat Abu Talib (a son of Hazrat Abdul Muttalib, an Uncle of Holy Prophet SAWS)
took over the charge of Holy Prophet (PBUH) and gave him due love and affection.
At the age of 9 years, Holy Prophet (PBUH) began to show signs of an intelligent and
inquisition mind by helping elders in a battlefield.
At the age of 12 years, Holy Prophet (PBUH) proved himself as an honest, truthful and
righteous person in a mercantile journey to Syria with his uncle Hazrat Abu Talib.
Therefore, he was titled as al Sadiq and al Ameen in his 23 rd year of age.

{ 570 AD – 622 AD }

Frustration on the Conditions of Arabia/Arabs:

Holy Prophet (PBUH) had a feel of frustration on the condition of Arabs/Arabia because
Arabs had forgotten the message of the Creator completely. They (Arabs) were dealt in
the worst form of idolatry & the Ka’abah was full of idols. Drinking, gambling, cruelty and
other vices were common. There was No settled government and No enforcement of Law
in the region. Qur’an named and Holy Prophet (PBUH) called this age of Arabia as the Age
of Ignorance.


Holy Prophet (PBUH) married to Hazrat Khadija (RAH) when he was 25 years and she was
of 40 years. She was known as TAHIRAH (chaste) among the Makkans. She remained as
his sole wife till her death for Twenty five years after her marriage.


Once, as a result of heavy rain, the walls of Ka’abah collapsed and had to be
reconstructed. The 4 chiefs of Makkan’s tribes constructed the walls of Ka’abah. At the
time of Fixing Black Stone (Hajr-e-Aswad), a dispute arose among the chiefs of Makkah.
The dispute reached to bloodshed and then, a wise old man of Banu Ummayyah advised
that the decision should be taken by a neutral person who would enter Ka’abah first the
next morning. Every body was agreed with this suggestion. Holy Prophet (PBUH) was the
first person who entered in Ka’abah first the next morning. He suggested that he would
spread a cloth sheet on the floor and all of the present (4 chiefs) would put the blackstone
in the centre of the sheet and permit Muhammad (SAWS) to place it in the wall and they
would pick up the each corner of the sheet and would carry that sheet till its proper place.
No one raised any objection. Thus he solved the matter. He was at the age of 35 years.

CALL TO PROPHETHOOD: [First year of Prophethood] 610 A.D.

When he reached to the age of 40 years and once he was sitting in Cave Hira, meditating
on the conditions of Arabia, an angel (Hazrat Gabriel AS) came before him and asked to
Read, he replied that he was ummi (a person who did not get education in a school). The
third time , angel hugged him and asked him to read as:

“Read in the name of Allah…………………………………………………” (96:1-5)

Holy Prophet (PBUH) was frightened and wanted to know about the actual fact of the
incident, therefore, Hazrat Khadija (RAH) took him to her cousin Warqa Bin Naufal, a
Christian Scholar who acknowledged that the Messenger was Hazrat Gabriel AS and Holy
Prophet (PBUH) was nominated as the Last Messenger of God.

START OF PREACHING: [2nd to 4th years of Prophethood] 611-613AD

A few months later, Prophet (SAWS) received another set of revelation containing the
message to ‘preach’ Islam & Qur’anic teachings by starting from the kinsfolk as said in
26:214, 15:94 and 74:1-3 respectively.

Years of Bitter Opposition and Persecution

[5th & 6th Year of Prophethood] 614-616 AD

Pagans of Makkah assumed that the Muslim believers were against the faith of their
forefathers and were insulting their idols by rejecting their worship. Therefore, they
raised their opposition and persecution in the 5th year of Prophethood.
The cruelties of pagans for the followers of Islam become unbearable due to which Holy
Prophet (SAWS) advised his followers’ delegation of 15 [headed by Hazrat Jaffar Taiyyar
(RA)] and an other delegation of 64 followers [headed by Hazrat Usman (RA)] to migrate
to Abyssinia respectively.
Hazrat Jaffar Taiyyar Radi Allahu Anhu (brother of Hazrat Ali Radi Allahu Anhu) gave a
sensational religious speech supported by the recitation of Surah Maryam (19: 1-21 and
3:45-51) before the King of Abyssinia, Najashi (who was a Christian Emperor). After a
detailed dialogue, Najashi favoured the Muslims and ordered pagans to go back and did
not return the Muslims.

YEAR OF MUSLIM STRENGTH: [6th year of Prophethood] 616 AD

The Muslims have got courage and strength with the consecutive events of embracing
Islam by Hazrat Hamzah Radi Allahu Anhu (Uncle of Holy Prophet pbuh) and Hazrat Umar
Radi Allahu Anhu. They claimed & invited Muslims to offer prayer in Ka’abah and started
to offer it by themselves first.

YEARS OF BOYCOTT: [7th _ 9th year of Prophethood] 617-619 AD

All tribes of Quraish proclaimed a social and economic boycott of Banu Hashim in
Makkah. It was announced in 7th year and lasted by themselves at the end of 9th year of

YEAR OF GRIEF: [10th year of Prophethood] 619-620 AD

In the 10th year of Prophethood, Hazrat Khadija Razi-Allahu-Anha (first wife of Holy
Prophet pbuh) and Hazrat Abu Talib (dear uncle of Holy Prophet pbuh) died one by one.
Later, Hazrat Sawdah Razi-Allahu-Anha and Hazrat Aisha Razi-Allahu-Anha got married
with Holy Prophet (SAWS) one by one.
People of Taif invited Holy Prophet (SAWS) for preaching but he reached there they tried
to insult him and injured him but Holy Prophet (SAWS) did not curse them and asked
guidance for them.
Almighty Allah liked his piety and called him for the holy journey of Mai’raj as it is partly
described in different Qur’anic passages such as worldly earth journey is indicated in
Surah Isra.

[ 11th , 12th & 13th Year of Prophethood ]

Six persons of Khazraj (Yasrib) came to Prophet pbuh at Aqaba – Makkah and embraced
Islam in 11th year of Prophethood.
Meanwhile, Holy Prophet (SAWS) visited Taif on their invitation but when he reached
there and started preaching Islamic teachings, they not only insulted him but injured him
so cruelly that his shoes were filled with his blood. On this occasion, Allah (SWT) gave him
an option to curse the people of Ta’if. But Holy Prophet (SAWS) prayed for their guidance
and forgiveness.


Event is proved by Certified Ahadith of Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari
and the Holy Qur’an specially 17:1. Event was held on 27th Rajjab al Murrajab12th year of

Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) was awakened by Hz. Jibraaiyl (AS) and told him that Allah
had conferred on him the unique honour of invitation to His Own Presence.
Hz. Jibraaiyl (AS) opened the Holy Prophet (SAWS)’s breast, took out his heart , washed
it with ZamZam and filled it with the Light (Nur) of Allah and then re-placed it in his body.
Then took him on Buraq a unique birds qualitative animal brought from the heavens
specially for this auspicious holy journey.
Prophet(SAWS) proceeded to Masjid-e-Aqsa accompanied by Hazrat Jibraaiyl (AS) on
Buraq. He said that the journey was of two steps only [it was recorded that a person could
travel that journey in almost 90 days]. Reaching at Al Aqsa, he was welcomed by Angels
and Former Prophets and they offered 2 Raka’ah prayer lead by Prophet (SAWS). Hence,
he was declared Imam al Ambia on earth. Then, the journey towards sky/heavens was
Prophet (SAWS) met with the leader of the Angels, Hazrat Ismail (AS) at the first sky
with his staff warmly. He met with Hazrat Adam (AS) there as well. He saw there an angel
having half of his body of Fire and half of ice, on query, Jibraaiyl (AS) explained that the
Angel was known as Mahter Ra’ad who has a duty to start and stop rainfall and snowfall.
He saw that some people were busy in agricultural activities, Jibraaiyl (AS) explained that
they were they people of earth who always earned uprightly in the world and spent their
wealth as
per Allah’s Commands. Then he saw that some Angels were stoning the heads of humans;
Jibraaiyl (AS) explained that they were the negligent of daily prayers.

Then he saw that humans, male & female had blessings of Allah to eat but they were
eating Dead bodies of prohibited; Jibraaiyl (AS) described that they were those who were
dealt in adultery (Zina), deceiving others, and were in usury.
PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SAWS) saw different scenes of the Heaven and Hell where the
grant of blessings and punishments were carried out. Then, he moved towards the 2nd
sky where he met with Hazrat Yahya (AS) and Hazrat Issa (AS) and with an angel Mahter
Qasim (AS) who assists Hazrat Mikhail (AS) in distributing food to the creatures of Allah.
Here, the leader in charge of the 2nd sky was Hazrat Jibraaiyl (AS).
Prophet (SAWS) reached to the 3rd sky and met with the in charge angel Mahter Ma’ayl
(AS) and Hazrat Yousuf (AS) who give him an advice of patience to face problems.
Prophet (SAWS) was, then, transported to the 4th sky where he met with Hazrat Idrees
(AS). He was also introduced with Hazrat Izrael (AS). Prophet (AS) asked him the reasons
of having his 4 faces. Hazrat Izrael (AS) replied that with front face that is made of NUR,
he possess the soul of Momineen; with the face of the right side (made of anger);, he
possess the soul of sinners; with the face of the left side (made of Qahr), he possess the
soul of hypocrites; with the face of the back side (made of fire of hell), he possess the soul
of disbelievers/unbelievers and Mushrikeen.
When he reached to the 5th sky, he met with Mahter Amayl (A.S) who was introduced
as the leader in charge of the angels there. He also met with Hazrat Haroon (A.S) who
gave him some tips of public speeches. Then, he was transported to the 6th sky where
he was welcomed by the leading in charge angel Mahter Haayl (A.S) and by Hazrat
Mussa (A.S). Hazrat Mussa (A.S) advised him to be very careful while accepting any
duty owe to Allah assigned to his Ummah as the Ummah would have weak in physic and
in senses’ control (spiritually) and also with a short length of age to live their worldly
lives. There, Holy Prophet (SAWS) saw an other Leading Angel on 19,000’s angels’ staff
named “Mahter Maalik(A.S)”- the In charge of the Hell.
Then, he met with another angel Mahter Rizwan (A.S) who was the in charge of the
Heavens. He was offered 3 types of cups by him; first of Milk, second of Wine; and the
third of Water, Prophet (SAWS) selected the cup of Milk. Hazrat Jibraaiyl (A.S) appreciated
and clarified that because of right choice of cup your Ummah is secured from Aafaat and
destructions (Azaab). After wards, he was transported to the 7th sky till Sidrat-il-Muntaha,
Hazrat Jibraaiyl (A.S) requested Prophet (SAWS) to continue the journey on Rafraf but he
would not accompany him as he was not permitted for any single step ahead.
From there (Sidrat-il-Muntaha on Rafraf), he was called by Allah, the Almighty on the
ARSH-E-ULLAA for one to one meeting. THERE both, the Creator and His Best creature
well conversed for each every secret and common matters. At return, he was gifted with
SALAT and unlimited glade tidings. Next morning, he discussed the event with Hazrat Abu
Bakr (RA) who second his statement without any hesitation.
Twelve persons of Khazraj (Yasrib) came to Prophet pbuh at Aqaba – Makkah
and embraced Islam in 12th year of Prophethood. Seventy Five persons of Khazraj
(Yasrib) came to Prophet pbuh at Aqaba – Makkah and embraced Islam in 13 th year of

MIGRATION TO YASRIB: [13th Year of Prophethood] 622 AD

When Quraish redoubled their persecution on Holy Prophet (SAWS) and his followers, he
advised his followers to migrate to Yasrib in small groups and families. But he waited for
the permission of Almighty Allah. Meanwhile, pagans plotted a killing plan for the Prophet
& his followers which Allah Almighty disclosed before His last messenger in Surah al-
Anfal (8:30) and advised him to migrate to Yasrib. Holy Prophet (SAWS), after assigning
the duty to Hazrat Ali Radi-Allahu-Anhu to return the valuables of the people of Quraish,
migrated to Yasrib with his closest companion Hazrat Abu Bakr Radi-Allahu-Anhu.

BETWEEN MAKKAH AND MADINAH: [13th Year of Prophethood] 622 AD

Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) accompanied with Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) stayed at Quba
on 8th Rabi ul Awwal of 622 A.D. Quba is situated 3 miles away from Madinah (Yasrib).

This place was also known as quarters of Bani Salem. Hazrat Ali (RA) joined him at
this place and then they laid the foundation of the first Masjid of Islam on earth named

“Masjid-e-Quba”. Holy Prophet (SAWS) led the First Friday’s Congregational Prayer and then left

Quba for Yasrib.


{ 622 AD – 632 AD }



Holy Prophet (SAWS) stayed where his camel stopped. His camel sat on an empty plot
of two orphan boys just in front of the house of Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (RA). Thus,
Holy Prophet (SAWS) paid the price of the plot to the orphans and offered them to
stay with him till their new shelter would not be arranged. Till then, he stayed in the
house of Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (RA). He received a revelation of Surah Ta’ubah verse
108; “>>>>>>>” So, he reserved the major part of the plot for the House of Allah and
started construction of First Masjid in Yasrib named Masjid-e-Nabwi.


Hazrat Umar (RA) suggested an option of Azaan / Call for Prayer so that the people who
would be busy in business transactions would be able to know the timings for prayers.
Holy Prophet (SAWS) praised his suggestion and assigned him to write the wordings
of Azaan (later it was approved by Wahi). Then, Holy Prophet (SAWS) assigned Hazrat
Bilal (RA) to learn and Proclaim Azaan. Thus, Hazrat Bilal (RA) became the First Mo’azzan
of Islam and Masjid-e-Nabwi. Hazrat Umar (RA) suggested an other option of making of Islamic
Calendar, which was allowed and guided by Holy Prophet (SAWS).


The role of Muhajireen and Ansars for the cause of Islam was praised by Allah himself in
the Holy Qur’an in 8:63 & 8:72 and guided to establish Mawakhat (a bond of brotherhood)
and to live a prosper and peaceful communal life in Madinah. Thus, Holy Prophet (SAWS)
established the First Muslim Society by joining one family of Muhajireen with a family of
Ansar. Therefore, the event is known as MAWAKHAT and the city of Yasrib was named as
the City of Prophet (SAWS) –Madinah.


Holy Prophet (SAWS) and his followers entered into an agreement with Jews Tribes of
Madinah – Banu Qainuqa, Banu Nazir and Banu Quraiza, known as “Treaty of Madinah”.
This treaty is a landmark in the history of mankind in which equal rights of the
citizenship were defined and were practiced. As a result of this treaty, Holy Prophet
(SAWS) was recognized as the undisputed leader, ruler, judge and the commander of the
people of Madinah.



An event of great significance featured in the month of Sha‘ban 2 A.H., (i.e. February).
Once, Holy Prophet (SAWS) got late in reaching Masjid-e-Qiblah , the Iqamat was said
and the rows for prayers were completed when Holy Prophet (SAWS) reached and stand
in the last centre of a new row ( having a wish to have the direction of worship towards
Masjid–e-Haram, Almighty Allah sent a set of revelation of 2:143 and 2:144 to change the
direction of the prayers from Masjid-e-Aqsa to Masjid-e-Haram with immediate effect.
Thus, this prayer was also led by Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and the Masjid was named
as Masjid-e-Qiblatain.


Fasting of the month of Ramadan for 30 days (as per the condition of citing of moon)
were ordained as OBLIGATORY for the Muslims and the Message was revealed in 2:183-
187 of Holy Qur’an.


To purify wealth of the believers after purifying their physiques through Prayers and
fasting, the order for the Payment of Zakat was also revealed in the words mentioned
therein 2:195, 2:275-279.


Abu Jahl, who came for the security of Abu Suffiyan (who was attacked by the way
robbers), blamed Muslims for the cause, later refused Abu Suffiyan also to return to
Makkah and advanced towards Madinah against Muslims instead.
In the month of Safar 2 A.H.(623 AD), Allah showed a dream to Holy Prophet (SAWS) about
the battle to be fought in the plain of Badr and the victory of Believers. Allah permitted
Prophet (SAWS) and his followers to fight against the unbelievers who imposed fighting
on them in the words said in Surah al Baqarah verse 190 with a few lessons and training
as indicated in 3:13+123, 8:45 and 54:45 of Holy Qur’an.
Madinah’s border- Badr was attacked
by the enemies of Islam from 3 sides,
Quraish+Jews+Munafiqeen as mentioned in 4:61 of the Holy Qur’an.
The Prophet [pbuh] spent the whole night preceding the day of the battle in prayer
and supplication. The Muslim army, wearied with their long march, enjoyed sound and
refreshing sleep, a mark of the Divine favour and of the state of their undisturbed minds.
"(Remember) when He covered you with a slumber as a security from Him, and He caused
rain to descend on you from the sky, to clean you thereby and to remove from you the Rijz
(whispering, evil suggestions, etc.) of Satan, and to strengthen your hearts, and make
your feet firm thereby." [Al-Qur'an 8:11]
That was Friday night, Ramadan 17th., the year 2 A.H.
In the morning, the Prophet [pbuh] called his men to offer the prayers and then urged
them to fight in the way of Allah. As the sun rose over the desert, the Prophet [pbuh]
drew up his little army, and pointing with an arrow which he held in his hand, arranged
the ranks.
The help of Allah reached in the course of Battle action while 313 Muslims faced 1000
armed enemies. It is described in 8:9, 8:44 and 8:19 of Holy Qur’an that Allah has bestowed
His favours to His followers and believers whatsoever and whoever is against.
Thus Battle of Badr has given so many names such as Day of Testing (8:29), Yaum-al-
Furqan (8:41), Sign of Allah (3:13). The Muslims were victorious in this Battle and Allah
demolished the pride of Pagans.


The Muslims were just thanked God after the Battle of Badr, the conspirators started
plotting a plan to take a revenge of the insulting defeat at Badr from Muslims.


In 3 A.H., pagans of Makkah attacked Madinah in 3000 with fully equipped against
1000 Muslims reaching Uhad. Abdullah Bin Ubbay deserted with 300 soldiers due to
disagreement on selection of Battlefield, hence declared in 33:10-24 that the people who
claim the faith by words but without true intention and desert at the time of test, they
are entitled as hypocrites.
Remaining 700 believers reached Uhad and were camped. Holy Prophet (SAWS) deputed
50 Archers on all directions at key posts. Quraish attacked first and Muslims responded
well. The wise deputation of Archers proved the best possible war strategy by Prophet
(SAWS) but when they archers saw that Believers have defeated the pagans, they
started collecting booty whereas they were strictly advised not to leave their posts. In
this way more then 30 archers disobeyed the Prophet’s command and were killed by the
forces of enemies who re attacked them as they saw that they had left the key posts.
While the small army of Islam were recording the second absolute and clear victory over
the Makkans—which was no less in splendour and glory than the first one at Badr —
the majority of the archers on the mountainside committed a fatal mistake that turned
the whole situation upside down, and constituted a source of heavy losses amongst the
Thus, believer bored a great loss in this battle. Hazrat Hamza (RA), one of the beloved
uncle of Holy Prophet (SAWS) was also martyred by a slave of Hindah (the wife of Abu

Suffiyan and daughter of Lahab Utba) in this battle. Holy Prophet (SAWS) was found
in great sorrow so that Allah revealed a message in this regard via 111:1-5. Due to the
sad and large number of casualties, nursing was started first time in the world. Muslims
learnt that how is harmful the disobedience of Holy Prophet (SAWS)!!


After the disclosure of Uhad’s conspiracy against Muslims by the contracted Tribes, steps
were taken against Banu Nazir in the FOURTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 4TH A.H. ] 625 AD who had
fortified themselves inside their strongholds after knowing the decision that Muslims with
other allies would take a severe action against their violation of the agreed and signed
Muslims with other tribes surrounded their strongholds and urged them to come to a
dialogue but they did not agree. After 21 day’s siege, they surrendered themselves.
However, the believers and the alliance group had given them 10 days’ time to collect
their belongings and leave Madinah. Therefore, the hypocrites of Madinah were expelled.

People of Banu Nazir were settled in Khyber after their expulsion from Madinah but they
did not leave conspiracies against believers and asked help from other tribes of Jews and
Quraish against Muslims. Ghatafan and Five other tribes supported Banu Nazir and they
chose Abu Suffiyan as their leader who led them towards Madinah. This news reached to
Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) who immediately consulted his companions to find out the
Hazrat Salman Farsi (RA) suggested to dig a huge Trench on the Fourth side that was
open for any attack. THREE thousand Muslims worked in digging the Trench. Meanwhile,
the troops of enemies reached from 2 sides, one from rocky hills and the bigger troop
from Trench side. The troops who came from the Trench side were disappointed. They
camped to understand the situation and some of them preferred to take the second
rock hills’ route. At this stage, Banu Quraiza shown a sympathy with the enemies’ Jews
tribe, had broken the treaty and met with enemies. Allah (SWT) has pointed out them
Hypocrites of a dangerous nature in Surah Al Ahzab verse 9 and 13>>>>; whereas the
battle is named as Battle of Ahzab or Battle of Allies in Holy Qur’an Chapter 33 Verse 10
& 11.>>>> .
Then Holy Prophet (SAWS) prayed Allah who sent down the divine help of a storm due
to which the camps of the enemies were either fired or destroyed. The enemies of Islam
and their allies suffered an unforgettable loss and were defeated. Muslims possessed
the booty of the war and were victorious. Thus, this Battle was significant in the history
of Islam that gave the lessons to the enemies to be careful next time as they had been
defeated so many times and would have face the divine confrontations. It left far
reaching consequences.



Holy Prophet (SAWS) saw a dream that he was entering in the Holy Ka’abah by signing
a treaty. Therefore, he invited the companions and followers for pilgrimage amongst
whom 1400 second the invitation of the Prophet (SAWS). Thus, Holy Prophet (SAWS)
with his 1400 (unarmed) companions set out for Makkah for the Pilgrimage.
Three miles away from Makkah, Quraish’s squad made them stop, so Holy Prophet
(SAWS) sent Hazrat Uthman (RA) to clarify the intention of Pilgrimage. They offered him
only to perform pilgrimage but he urged to call his leader Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) and
the other companions which was denied and they hostile him.
Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) heard a rumor of the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (RA) that
is why he sent an other messenger to enquire the truth, he said that if it would be true
then we would take revenge of that and would ask for the custody of the killer. Holy
Prophet (SAWS) addressed the companions at this occasion and took oath under the tree
of Rizwan (RA)’s orchard. This event is known as Bayt-e-Rizwan in Islamic history.

Hazrat Uthman (RA) and the other messenger were released by Quraish with a
suggestion to sign a Pact of Peace at Hudaibiya. Holy Prophet (SAWS) accepted the
suggestion and agreed to sign the Agreement though the terms and conditions of the
Treaty were very strict and one sided and thus the leading companions were not in
favour of signing the treaty but when Holy Prophet (SAWS) recited the Verses 1 “>>>”,
17 “>>>”, 18 “>>>” and 27 “>>>” of Holy Qur’an from Chapter 48, they agreed with
the opinion of Prophet (SAWS) as per the past experiences.
The major 4 terms of the Treaty of Hudaibiya were as follows:
Muslims would return to Madinah that year.
Muslims would be allowed to come for Pilgrimage next year for only 3 days.
If a Quraish join Muslims without permission would be sent back to Makkah; but if a
Muslim from Madinah may go to Makkah would not be sent back.
No fighting or no killing for years must be observed.
Victory of Muslims through this treaty was truly hidden in its third and fourth condition
as it was said by Allah (SWT) in Holy Qur’an [48:1], “>>>>>>”. This shows that how
Allah (SWT) bestowed Holy Prophet (SAWS) with excellence of wisdom.



Treaty of Hudaibiya brought a sense of peace in the lives of believers, so Holy Prophet
(SAWS) re started the preaching process and establishes a bond of good international
relationships with other states. Thus, Holy Prophet (SAWS) wrote letters to several Kings
and Emperors in which he invited them to establish brothern and cooperative relationship
within the region and for the global peace. He invited them to embrace Islam as well. He
wrote a letter to Heraclus, a Roman Emperor, who replied politely but did not embrace
Islam. Holy Prophet (SAWS) sent a letter to Chosroes (Khusro), a Persian Emperor, who
insulted and killed the conveyer and tore the letter. His son killed him and later he suicide
himself also.
Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) wrote a letter to the very famous King of Abyssinia, Negus-
Najashi who embraced Islam. Dr. Hameedullah exerted painstaking effort and used all
means of modern technology to verify the text of the letter, which reads as follows:
"In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad the Messenger of Allah to Negus, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance. Salutations, I entertain Allah’s praise, there
is no god but He, the Sovereign, the Holy, the Source of peace, the Giver of peace, the
Guardian of faith, the Preserver of safety. I bear witness that Jesus, the son of Mary, is
the spirit of Allah and His Word which He cast into Mary, the virgin, the good, the pure, so
that she conceived Jesus. Allah created him from His spirit and His breathing as He created
Adam by His Hand. I call you to Allah Alone with no associate and to His obedience and to
follow me and to believe in that which came to me, for I am the Messenger of Allah. I invite
you and your men to Allah, the Glorious, the All-Mighty. I hereby bear witness that I have
communicated my message and advice. I invite you to listen and accept my advice. Peace be
upon him who follows true guidance."[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 3/60]
The text of this letter is doubtlessly authentic, but to maintain that it was written after Al-
Hudaibiyah event is still a question lacking in definite evidence.
When ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari communicated the Apostolic letter to Negus, the latter
took the parchment and placed it on his eye, descended to the floor, confessed his faith in
Islam and wrote the following reply to the Prophet [pbuh]:
"In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Negus Ashama to Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. Peace be upon you, O
Messenger of Allah! and mercy and blessing from Allah beside Whom there is no god. I
have received your letter in which you have mentioned about Jesus and by the Lord of
heaven and earth, Jesus is not more than what you say. We fully acknowledge that with
which you have been sent to us and we have entertained your cousin and his companions.
I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allah, true and confirming (those who have
gone before you), I pledge to you through your cousin and surrender myself through him

to the Lord of the worlds."[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 3/61]
Then, the Rulers of Egypt-Cyprus, Oman and Bahrain also honoured the invitation of
Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) and the Ruler of Egypt sent a slave girl (Hazrat Maria- who
became Muslim and a wife of Holy Prophet SAWS, later) as a traditional gift.


Banu Nazir, after leaving Madinah did not leave plotting conspiracy against Muslims. They
started conspiracy against Holy Prophet (SAWS) and his followers.
After Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty, the major party of the anti-Islam tripartite coalition —
Quraish, the bedouin horde of Najd tribes and the Jews — was neutralized, therefore,
the Prophet [pbuh] deemed it an appropriate time to settle his affairs with the other two
wings — the Jews and the Najd tribes — in order that peace and security could prevail
and the Muslims may devote their time and effort in propagating the Message of Allah
and calling people to embrace it. Khaibar itself had always remained a hotbed of intrigue
and conspiracy, and the Jews had always constituted it a source of military provocations
and war instigation centre, so it was given a top priority on the agenda of the Prophet’s
compelling exigencies. The Jews of Khaibar had united by an ancient alliance with the
Confederates, triggered Bani Quraiza to practise treachery, maintained contacts with
Ghatfan and the Arabians and they even devised an attempt at the Prophet’s life. In fact,
the continual afflictions that the Muslims had sustained were primarily attributable to
the Jews. Envoys were repeatedly sent to them for peaceful settlement, but all in vain.
Consequently the Prophet [pbuh] came to the conclusion that a military campaign was a
must in order to forestall their hostilities.
Interpreters of the Noble Qur’ân suggest that capturing Khaibar had been a Divine
promise implied in Allah’s Words: "Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will
capture, and He has hastened for you this." [Al-Qur'an 48:20]
But this time Muslims did not give them time to call their helpers and Banu Nazir was
besieging in Khyber. They were of opinion that forte of Khyber would be tough target for
Muslims. But Muslim cut off their supply lines and made them ready to come out either
to fight or surrender. Some of them preferred to surrender and some of them wanted to
fight. Ultimately, the believer overcome the situation and Banu Nazir were defeated once

The Compensatory ‘Umrah(Lesser Pilgrimage)

When Dhul Qa‘da month approached towards the close of the seventh year A.H., the
Prophet [pbuh] ordered his people, and the men who witnessed Al-Hudaibiyah Truce
Treaty in particular, to make preparations to perform ‘Umrah (lesser pilgrimage). He
proceeded with 2000 men besides some women and children [Fath Al-Bari 7/700], and
60 camels for sacrifice, to visit the Holy Sanctuary in Makkah. The Muslims took their
weapons with them fearing the treachery of the Quraishites, but left them with a party of
two hundred men at a place some eight miles from Makkah. They entered the city with the
swords in their scabbards [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/151; Fath Al-Bari 7/700], with the Prophet
[pbuh] at their head on his she-camel, Al-Qaswa’, while the surrounding Companions
attentively focusing their look on him, all saying: "Here I am! at Your service O Allah!" The
Quraishites had left the place and retired to their tents on the adjoining hills. The Muslims
performed the usual circumambulation vigorously and briskly; and on recommendation
by the Prophet [pbuh] they did their best to appear strong and steadfast in their
circumambulation as the polytheists had spread rumours that they were weak because
the fever of Yathrib (Madinah) had sapped their strength. They were ordered to run in the
first three rounds and then walk in the remaining ones. The Makkans meanwhile aligned
on the top of Qu‘aiqa‘an Mount watching the Muslims, tongue-tied at witnessing their
strength and devotion. When they entered the Holy Sanctuary, ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha
walked before the Prophet [pbuh] reciting:
"Get out of his way, you disbelievers, make way, we will fight you about its revelation
with strokes that will remove heads from shoulders and make friend unmindful of friend."
After ritual walking and running between the two hills of Makkah, Safa and Marwah,
the Prophet[pbuh] with the Muslims halted at the latter spot to slaughter the sacrificial
animals and shave their heads.

The main body of the pilgrims had now performed the basic rites of the lesser pilgrimage,
but there remained those who were entrusted the charge of the weapons. The Prophet
had these relieved, and they went through the same devotions as the others did.
On the morning of the fourth day of the pilgrimage, the notables of Quraish asked ‘Ali bin
Abi Talib to tell the Prophet [pbuh] to leave Makkah along with his Companions. He, of
course, could not conceive of violating the terms of Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty, therefore he
ordered his men to depart for a village called Sarif where he stayed for some time.
It was during this visit of the Prophet [pbuh] to Makkah for pilgrimage that his
uncle ‘Abbas offered the hand of his sister-in-law, Maimuna — the daughter of Harith, to
him. The Prophet [pbuh] was kind enough to accept this offer since it was an effective
step towards cementing the ties of relationship between the Prophet [pbuh] and the
influential men of Makkah. The wedding took place in Sarif. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/152]
Narrators attached different designations to this lesser pilgrimage. Some called it the
compensatory lesser pilgrimage, performed instead of that uncompleted of Hudaibiyah;
and the other one, given preponderance by jurists, is the lesser pilgrimage consequent
on certain terms of a treaty already agreed upon. On the whole, compensatory, judicial
consent, retribution and reconciliation are all terms applicable to that visit.

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